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 Kho-Kho Ground (For Men, Women and Junior Boys)

End Lines
The lines AB and CD measuring 15 metres in length and running parallel to each other at a distance of 27 metres are known as end lines.

Side Lines
The lines AD and BC measuring 27 metres in length and running parallel to each other at a distance of 15 metres are known as side lines.


The limits oft he Kho-Kho field, measuring 27m x 15m ,are formed by meeting the end lines and the side lines at A, B, C, and D.


Two strong wooden posts shall be fixed firmly at M and N. They shall be 120 cm above and perpendicular to the ground. Their circumference shall be uniform and measuring between 30 to 40 cm. Tops of the posts shall be flat and free from sharp edges. The posts shall not be tapered. The posts shall be smooth all over.

Centre Lane
The rectangle (21.6 m long and 30 cm broad) between the posts M and N, dividing the play-field into two halves, is known as a central lane.

Cross Lanes
Each of the rectangles, 15m long and 30 cm broad, intersecting the central lane at right angles at regular intervals and itself being divided into two halves, is known as a cross lane (XY). There are eight cross lanes.

Each of the rectangles 30 cm x 30 cm formed by the intersection of the central lane and the cross lane, is known as a square (0). There are eight squares, the centre of each being at a distance of 240 cm from the centre of its adjacent square. The chasers sit in the squares, alternately facing the opposite direction.

Line of the Post
The line which goes through the centre of the post upto the side lines and is at a distance of 225 cm from the nearest cross lane running parallel to it, is known as the line of the post or the post line (EF & GH). There are two post lines on both sides, drawn from one side line to another side line.

The side lines and end lines which surround the play-field area are called limits

Players of a team who sit in the square to chase and touch the opponent with shoulder line parallel to the boundary line are called chasers and the actual pursuers in running position are called active chasers.
The runners who actually come inside the limit, in a batch of three, are called defenders.

If the captain of the chasing team requests the referee for permission to replace an injured player, he can give such permission but the injured player cannot return to the game.

To Take A Direction

To move from one post to another post is known as taking direction. It is one of the very important techniques in Kho-Kho. Should an active chaser take the direction of the shoulders to one side and foot to another, across the cross lane, he will have to continue in the direction he first selected

To Turn Face

This occurs when the turn of the shoulder line exceeds a right angle to the direction in which the active chaser is moving.

To Recede
When an active chaser going in a particular direction, suddenly changes direction, or even part of his body touches the ground behind him, it is known as receding.

Contact In
Should any part of a player's body while going outside,touch the play- field.then the player is inside.

Contact Out
If while entering the play-field, a player touches the ground outside the play area.he is declared contact out

To Leave the Post
Should an active chaser lose his hold on the post and goes beyond, to leave the rectangle it is called leaving the post, but if any part of the body of an active chaser is in contact with the ground in the rectangle, he is not regarded as having gone beyond or left the rectangle.

Out of Limits
If a runner loses contact with the ground inside the limit, he is out However, if any part of his body is in contact with the ground inside the limit, the runner is not out

The Rectangle
The field outside the line of the post is known as the rectangle (ABFE & CDHG). One side of the rectangle is 15 m (breadth of play-field) and the other side is 270 cm.

There shall be a lobby surrounding the limits at a distance of 3 metres (PQRS).|

Width of the Line
Width of each line should be between 2.5 cm and 3 cm. The dimensions of the ground will be inclusive of the width of the line.
Kho-Kho is played on a clay court or turf. Indian games are based on physical skill and fitness and need no sophisticated equipment like ball games.
'Kho' resembles a pass in Hockey or Football. The only difference is that one is a word with which to communicate rapidly while the other is a ball.
The vocal pass is not only necessary but vital to the game of Kho-Kho, since it indicates to the defender, the change of an active chaser, which is extremely difficult to spot in fast pursuit
In a Kho-Kho game, a referee and two umpires officiate. The time-keeper signals the start and end of every turn and also announces the completion of every minute.
The scorer maintains the records.

The game starts with one long and short blast of a whistle and ends with one long blast A short blast, signals the dismissal of a defender.
A foul is indicated by continuous short blasts of the whistle.
The penalty for a foul is to stop the chase and to take the direction indicated by the umpire. The various fouls are indicated by different signs.

It is broken in a knock out contest by noting
the time taken to put out the first defender in the fourth innings or further innings, if necessary.
The minimum time required to put out a defender entitles a team to victory

'Kho is said to be given when an active chaser utters loudly and distinctly the word 'kho', which means go or chase, simultaneously touching by hand, a chaser from behind him. This is, therefore, a relay ensuring coverage of a certain minimum distance by an active chaser.
A chaser must not be pushed. Breaking is sometimes applied when chasing and for this, pressure is applied on one leg. The direction of running determines the leg on which the breaking pressure is applied

Chasing  Skills and Techniques
How to Sit in Square :
There are two methods and types of sitting in the square:
1. Bunch or Bullet Method
2. Parallel Thigh Method

1. Bunch or Bullet Method :
It is one of the old and comfortable methods, in this, the strong foot (jumping foot) is always kept nearer the front line of the central lane. The toe of the second foot should be near the middle position of the front foot The distance between both feet is between 3" to 4". The player should sit on the front foot and toe of the rear foot Palms are placed just outside the central and cross lanes, keeping the thumbs of both hands near the cross lane and fingers almost parallel to the central lane. While getting up, the rear foot comes out first with great force, which is achieved by pushing the ground with both the hands. Looking straight ahead and keeping the body in a leaning position with the weight of the body on the front foot and the hands, the chaser should always keep in mind not to touch the central lane.

2. Parallel Thigh Method :
In these days, the game is very fast So most of the advanced players adopt this method. In this method, there are many chances of incurring fouls, but with continuous practice and perfection in the game it is most advantageous and beneficial. In this method, the chaser sits on his toes, keeping his thighs parallel to the ground and completely raising his heels. The rest of the procedure is the same as in the Bullet Method.

To Sit in the Square Hear the Poles :
Turning round the post is important. There are two kinds of turning round the post i.e. clockwise or anti-clockwise. So, a basic difference is in sitting on the square near the posts. It is, therefore, necessary to choose two chasers -(i) left-hand chaser, and (ii) right-hand chaser. The left-hand chaser should sit where the pole is, on his left side. The right-hand chaser should sit on a square near the post in such a way that the pole is on his right side. Most of the players are right-handers. Left-handers are rare.

1. Single action of either touching a chaser by hand or uttering the world 'kho' or uttering any word other than 'kho'
2. Turning of the shoulder line more than a right angle of the direction in which the chaser is going
3. An active chaser recedes
4. An active chaser gives 'kho' by touching the extended arm or leg of a chaser
5. An active chaser touches the central lane
6. An active chaser starts the chase, with a foot outside the cross lane on one side but continues to chase on the other side
7. Shoulder line of an active chaser indicates a direction, but is later changed
8. Ground of the central lane or beyond, is touched by any part of the body of an active chaser
9. Changing the face of the square or leaving it without getting a 'kho' from the chaser
10. Defender of a new batch is pursued

Out Score
A defender is out if he : .
1. Is touched by an active chaser by hand, without violating the rules of the game
2. Leaves the limits, i.e. loses contact with the ground inside the limits
3. Enters the field late
4. Touches a chaser a second time, after having already been warned

For each defender who is out, the chasing side scores a point
When all the runners are out before a turn is completed, play is continued by sending the first batch of runners to defend, until the time of the turn (viz. 7 minutes) is at an end. A follow on may be given if the points earned by the side that chases first, exceed the points by the other side by nine or more, without forfeiting the right to play their innings, in case the other side exceeds their score.

Should the score be equal, each side gets a point in a league match but an extra innings will be played on a knock out system. If, at the end of the extra innings, a winner does not emerge, then a minimum defence innings is played. The side that scores the most points, is declared the winner.

Getting up from a square is as important as sitting on one. Concentrating on a defender helps and controls a chaser's movements, as also speed in rising and covering ground on the cross lane.
The 'ape' and 'frog' styles give stability but reduce speed.

The 'lean over' style gives stability and ample speed. Getting straight up is ideal but is difficult in practice. The instinct to pounce on a subject helps and though speed is an asset, it should not be the ultimate goal.
The post should be held in both hands. If a defender can be put out by chasing, avoid touching at the post

Touching at the Post
The post has become important strategically. An active chaser changes direction when he turns round the post and frequently, a defender has no alternative but to go to the post
For an active chaser. 'extension of the body to the maximum extent is only possible at the post. Sometimes, a defender at the post is not chased around it but is intercepted near it
The post can be held at elbow joint or even with the palm. The latter extends the reach. The action of holding the post and swinging the other arm has to be simultaneous.

Judgement Kho
It is the split-second judgement of a 'kho' on the last lane by the defender that carries the day,A wrong judgement could force him to leave the post and become easy prey for the chaser of the first square, who gets a 'kho' or will keep him to the post till he is run over.
Much depends on how skillfully an active chaser forces the defender into a wrong judgement of his intentions -to chase or to give 'kho'.
Whenever a defender comes out in front of a seated chaser - and is in a quandary, he has to be put out by rising at almost an angle of 45. The angle will vary with the speed and the doubts of the defender. The ideal thing to do, is to focus attention on the defender, judge his speed, and then, taking correct direction, put him out

The skill, combined with the perfection of touching at the post, proves very effective, but the deciding factor is always- timing

This is one of the many skills of Kho-Kho. It is used to' cover distance when the defender is too far away and cannot be touched, by covering the distance with the sheer speed of a sprint. The dive is difficult to execute, however, unless one has confidence, judgement, speed and skill.

This is another rare skill adopted by the chasers, which requires speed, balance, breaking-power and almost coming to a halt, after hitting the target. Timing is most important.
By accelerating his speed, the active chaser covers the distance and by bending, extends his hand so as to touch the heel of the defender nearest to him at the time.

Single Chain
This is an important skill of defence. A defender enters from the back of each successive chaser, when the preceding chaser gets a 'kho' and engraves a chain-like design - known as single chain.

A master of this skill does not go to the post, but comes out into the field at a convenient place and keeps on repeating the chain. He normally refrains from completing tine chain from behind the seventh and eighth chaser, but goes to the post straight from the seventh lane.

Double Chain
This involves continuous running but is a popular defence strategy.
The defender keeps' himself at a safe distance and sprints along a well-laid route.

The basic pattern is when two seated chasers are in a loop that is formed when a defender traverses the route. The perfect and almost flawless route which is popular and widely practised is the common route of 3,6,9 or post The defender crosses the central lane twice from the rear, and behind the seated chasers 3 and 6 while moving towards the post He repeats the route from the opposite end, unless the chasers compel him to change it
He goes to the post after entering from behind the third seated chaser from the post. An extra, single-chain ring is necessary, to go to the post if any route other than 3,6 and 9 is played. 

The Game

Intoduction | The Game | Kho-Kho Ground | Olympic Discipline


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